Sunday, May 24, 2020

Child Abuse Is A Social Problem Essay - 2160 Words

Child abuse is a social problem that continuously produces a wave of concern. The State of New Jersey Department of Children and Families explains that â€Å"Abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional harm or risk of harm to another child under the age of 18 caused by a parent or other person who acts as a caregiver for the child† (2016). The harsh reality of child abuse and its consequences is recognized throughout this essay. The cost of child abuse can be understood through direct and indirect costs. Direct costs describe those of â€Å"the child welfare system, judicial and law enforcement, health and mental health systems† (New Jersey Child Assault Prevention, 2015). Comparatively, indirect costs apply to much more long term problems/a turn of events the child victim and their abuser(s) may have. These costs involve the effects abuse has or may have in regards to â€Å"education, mental health, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, welfare dependency, domestic violenc e, homelessness, juvenile delinquency and adult criminality† (New Jersey Child Assault Prevention, 2015). It costs a substantial amount of money to deal with child abuse. Moving away from these consequences, it is arguable that â€Å"children exposed to violence or abuse, if left unaddressed or ignored, are at an increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems in the future. They may not be able to express their feelings safely and as a result, may develop difficulties regulating their emotions† (Joyful HeartShow MoreRelatedThe Social Problem Of Child Abuse Essay1409 Words   |  6 Pagesare a variety of social issues that shape and make the world the way it is today. These social problems can either affect the economy, humans, and neighborhood communities ranging from local or national. One social problem that has increased among humans today is child abuse. Child abuse is the physical mistreatment of a child by a parent or caregiver who is held responsible fo r a child at their time of care. It can be physical, sexual, or psychological. These forms of abuse can happen in manyRead MoreChild Abuse Is A Social Problem977 Words   |  4 PagesWhen a child is abused or neglected, it not only affects them when they are children, but also affects them when they become functioning adults in society. A sociological social psychology perspective that can be applied to explain why child abuse happens which is the social structure and personality perspective. This perspective can also find a way to solve child abuse in the home. Child abuse is a social problem that has been happening for plenty of decades in our society and with the social structureRead MoreThe Social Problem Of Child Abuse2093 Words   |  9 PagesThe social problem that I researched was child abuse. The term child abuse is defined as Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or e xploitation; or An act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm†(Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2013). Every state is responsible for providing its own definition of child abuse and neglect within the minimum standards set by CAPTA.Read MoreChild Abuse- Social Problems Essays870 Words   |  4 PagesSocial Problems Child Abuse Child abuse is the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglect of children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or also known as CDC defines child abuse as any act or series of acts by a parent or other caregiver that could result in harm to a child. Most child abuse occurs in a childs home, but it could also be found within organizations, schools, or communities that the child interacts with. There are four majorRead MoreAnalysis Of Barbara Nelson s Book Making An Issue Of Child Abuse Political Agenda Setting For Social Problems Essay1556 Words   |  7 PagesThe social problems that face our country continuously surround our government. Politicians, although they attempt to avoid these issues are constantly in the eye of the public. Social problems can be determined as, â€Å"†¦some condition, set of events, or group of persons constitutes a troublesome situation that needs to be changed or ameliorated †. In Barbara J. Nelson ’s book Making an Issue of Child Abuse Political Agenda Setting for Social Problems, the author broke down the history of child abuseRead MoreThe Problem Of Child Abuse1134 Words   |  5 Pagesfollowing paper is about Child Abuse. This paper will look into the description of the problem, the policies that has helped solved the problem, involvement in resolving the problem, and person recommendations on changing the approach of the problem. Description of the Problem/History Child abuse is a form of any sexual activity that a child doesn’t give consent to. Whether it may be sexually or physically if the child is not mentally ready it is still a form of abuse. Child abuse also can lead to differentRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination And The Social Issue Of Child Abuse1492 Words   |  6 Pageswas a concept argued by C. Wright Mills was and still is a valuable tool to help people look at, understand and interpret their everyday lives and social world around them (in which they live). The argued perspective will be discussed through the use of the Sociological Imagination with the Personal Problem of Depression and the Social Issue of Child Abuse with what can be done to solve both of these ‘Dilemmas of Youth’. 2. 1. Sociological Imagination The Sociological Imagination is a form of criticalRead More Sociology: Identifying Social Problems Essay1671 Words   |  7 PagesIdentifying Social Problems The definition of a social problem varies greatly depending on whether an objectivist approach or a constructionist approach is taken. This is because sociologists that adopt these unique perspectives will differ in how they view the nature of a social problem. The objectivist definition of a social problem is perhaps more common sense because it suggests that the essence of social problems lies in objective social conditions and that some conditions areRead MoreEssay about Understanding and Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect1340 Words   |  6 PagesDave Pelzer, A Child Called It   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Child abuse, the physical and/or emotional abuse of a child by a parent, guardian, or other person, is a major problem in the United States. Child abuse, including sexual abuse, beating, and murder have increased and it is believed that many cases go unreported. Another for of child abuse is child neglect, which includes malnutrition, desertion, and inadequate care for a child.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Efforts have increased on the primary prevention of child abuse. This must beRead MoreChild Welfare Essay1260 Words   |  6 PagesEthics and Social Justice | HUM220 A02 Module 5, Assignment 1: Analyzing a Social Policy 6/2013 In the past, more importantly today, many social policies have been created by humans, and can therefore also be destroyed by them as well. Social policies were designed to resolve issues that are â€Å"considered important by a mass of voters, media, and political actors† (Argosy, 2013). Social policy are only the start of help for some, yet they aren’t always

Thursday, May 14, 2020

How to Create Your Own Homeschool Curriculum

Many homeschooling parents—even those who start out using a pre-packaged curriculum—decide somewhere along the way to take advantage of the freedom homeschooling allows by creating their own course of study. If youve never created your own teaching plan, it can sound daunting. But taking the time to put together a customized curriculum for your family can save you money and make your homeschooling experience much more meaningful. Here are some general steps to follow to help you design a curriculum for any subject. 1. Review Typical Courses of Study by Grade First, you may want to research what other children in public and private schools are studying in each grade in order to make sure your children are covering approximately the same material as other students their age. The detailed guidelines linked below can help you set standards and goals for  your own curriculum. Typical Course of Study for Elementary SchoolTypical Course of Study for Sixth GradeTypical Course of Study for Seventh GradeTypical Course of Study for Eighth GradeTypical Course of Study for Ninth GradeTypical Course of Study for Tenth GradeTypical Course of Study for Eleventh GradeTypical Course of Study for Twelfth Grade 2. Do Your Research. Once you have determined what subjects you will cover, you may need to do some research to make sure you are up-to-date on the particular topic, particularly if its one you are not already familiar with.   One solid way to get a quick overview of a new subject? Read a well-written book on the topic aimed at middle schoolers! Books for that level will tell you everything you need to know to cover the topic for younger students, but still be comprehensive enough to get you started on a high school level. Other resources you can use include: Popular nonfiction young adult books;Websites about a subject for students;Review books written for high school students;Self-help books for adults (such as the For Dummies series);Textbooks, particularly ones that are recommended by other homeschoolers. As you read, make notes on key concepts and topics you may want to cover. 3. Identify Topics to Cover. Once youve gotten a broad view of the subject, start thinking about what concepts you want your children to learn. Dont feel you have to cover everything—many educators today feel that digging deep into a few core areas is more useful than skimming over many topics briefly. It helps if you organize related topics into units. That gives you more flexibility and cuts down on work. (See below for more work-saving tips.) 4. Ask Your Students. Ask your children what they would like to study. We all retain facts more readily when were studying a topic that captivates us. Your children may be interested in topics that fall right in line with what youd want to cover anyway, such as the American Revolution or insects. However, even topics that may not seem educational on the surface can provide valuable learning opportunities. You can study them as-is, weave in related concepts, or use them as a springboard for more in-depth topics. 5. Create a Timetable. Figure out how long you would like to spend on the subject. You can take a year, a semester, or a few weeks. Then decide how much time you want to devote to each topic you want to cover. I recommend creating a schedule around units instead of individual topics. Within that time period, you can list all the topics you think your family would like to learn about. But dont worry about individual topics until you get there. That way, if you decide to drop a topic, youll avoid doing extra work. For instance, you may want to devote three months to the Civil War. But you dont need to plan out how to cover each battle until you dive in and see how it goes. 6. Select High-quality Resources. One big plus of homeschooling is that it lets you use choose the very best resources available, whether they are textbooks or alternatives to textbooks. That includes picture books and comics, movies, videos, and toys and games, as well as online resources and apps. Fiction and narrative nonfiction (true stories about inventions and discoveries, biographies, and so on) can also be useful learning tools. 7. Schedule Related Activities. Theres more to learning a topic than accumulating facts. Help your kids put the topics you cover into context by scheduling in field trips, classes, and community events that relate to the subject you are studying. Search out museum exhibits or programs in your region. Find experts (college professors, craftspeople, hobbyists) who might be willing to talk to your family or homeschool group. And be sure to include lots of hands-on projects. You dont have to put them together from scratch -- there are lots of well-made science kits and arts and crafts kits, as well as activity books that give you step-by-step directions. Dont forget activities like  cooking, making costumes, creating ABC books, or building models. 8. Find Ways to Demonstrate What Your Kids Have Learned. Written tests are just one way to see how much your students  have learned about a subject. You can have them put together a research project that includes an essay, charts, timelines, and written or visual presentations. Kids can also reinforce what theyve learned by making artwork, writing stories or plays, or creating music inspired by the subject. Bonus Tips: How to make writing your own curriculum quicker and easier: Start small. When youre writing your own curriculum for the first time, it helps to start with one unit study or one subject.Keep it flexible. The more detailed your teaching plan, the less likely you are to stick to it. Within your subject, pick a few general topics you want to touch on. Dont worry if you come up with more topics than you can possibly cover in one year. If one topic doesnt work for your family, youll have options to move on to. And nothing says you cant continue on with a subject for more than a year.Choose topics that interest you and/or your kids. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you child is fascinated with a subject, chances are you will pick up some factoids about it as well. The same goes for you: Teachers who love their topic can make anything sound interesting. Writing your own curriculum doesnt have to be a daunting task. You might be surprised to discover how much you enjoy personalizing your familys curriculum—and how much you learn along the way. Updated by Kris Bales

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Surprising Facts About Writing Services Online

Surprising Facts About Writing Services Online There are several online businesses, and there are a couple businesses that offer quality online writing services. Moreover, you'll need to supply services that are of a particular quality. Often people ask why our service is well-known with such a sizable number of students. There are a lot of reasons why you need to prefer our services. Although your order is being processed they'll aid you in finding instant solutions to any problem that might appear. When writing about your merchandise or service isn't anything new. Every respectful writing it meticulously works on keeping a solid reputation, so it will be simple to check it. If you're on the lookout for the absolute best writing services online, you're in the suitable site. Writing a CDR has a lot of challenges as a good deal of things need to be considered when writing a CDR, so as to escape rejection. Let our writing service solve your academic troubles and provide yo u with an opportunity to concentrate on things which are important. Choosing Writing Services Online It's only normal to be anxious about hiring an on-line essay writer since you can not ever be sure whether you are employing the ideal service or not. The web is full of professional writers. It's possible to prefer online writing services to discover more about the writing strategy. There may be lots of freelance writers accessible who will most likely be in somewhere to fulfill the essentials of the writing. Our professional essay writers will look after your orders to supply customized essays in time. The best method to summarize an essay is to become started with reading it through a precise first time quickly. Join the club of individuals who know what a true customized essay free of plagiarism is. Browsing our essay writing samples can provide you a good idea whether the standard of our essays is the quality you're looking for. What's even more, a discount is given for each and every paper a client purchases from us. Online cheap customized essays are offered at the most inexpensive rates and are sure to be delivered by your deadline. Going further, you should provide details of your assignment. If you are really considering outsourcing your eBook writing then you will have a couple options open to select from. The web has turned into a highway for a myriad of information. Though, it's not you will acquire excellent assignment services just in a few of searches. Article pr omotion is one of the most well-known approaches to raise the popularity of your website. You are able to begin creating and publishing completely free surveys online in minutes. The ideal way to aid a college student write an essay is to help them in understanding the practice of writing one. Dissertation services offer a remedy to their problem. As a consequence, such students start looking for the best essay help to make sure that their project is going to be produced at the maximal level in accord with all academic standards. Many students panic when they have to have a speech class or present a topic before their typical class. The amounts of writers readily available, which are proficient in the assignments you have to work on are vast, whatever the topic or subject. Additional lots of students have been working part time together with their studies to fulfill their expenses, which makes it hard for them to compose essays punctually and they cry for help that somebody write an essay in their opinion. Regardless of what's the aim of your essay, there's a preset number of points you will be expected to handle. One of the principal explanations for why college students shouldn't be concerned about writing quality college essays is the simple fact that help with writing is already a service that's easily available and accessible nowadays. Essay writing is so essential, so here is what you can do to assist your son or daughter write terrific ones! It is also feasible that you've been assigned with the writing tasks to be submitted in a very brief deadline. There are scores and scores of reasons which can h elp you in deciding to choose Assignment Work Help for services like assignment assistance and homework help for your academics. If you're a student living in Perth and beyond you can present your assignment to us. Furthermore, your general grade of the thesis will be made better. Together with the UK Essay Help undergraduates can't get worried about the time but delight in a complete life. Writing an essay is easily the most popular mode of informal and continuous assessment used in the majority of institutions. Essay writing assistance is currently offered.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Therapeutic Intervention And Anxiety Disorders †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Therapeutic Intervention And Anxiety Disorders. Answer: Introduction According to the DSM-5 category of Anxiety disorders, Social anxiety disorders are also known as social phobia. It is a type of an anxiety disorder that includes disturbances in an individual when and around social interactions because they are mainly concerned of being uncomfortable and critically judged by others. However, with people suffering from this disorder they are found to be discomfort by experiencing fear as well as anxiety along with some may also experience autonomic arousals that involves nauseas, diaphoresis, apnea, tremors and tachycardia. Moreover, social anxiety disorders can hamper the daily life activities that involve social situations (Iverach and Rapee 2014). They may want to interact with others but their anxiety becomes unbearable and restrains from participating. It can further guide a person to isolation and stagnation of developing any social skills that can further increase the already existing social anxiety. However this is a case report where the theo retical intervention of the chosen case study that of the client named Mr. Piyal who is 30 years old male who is single and living with his mother and his younger brother. This report will further explain the treatment plan, the rationale behind choosing the type of therapies and lastly, evaluating the strength and weakness of the chosen approach. Rationale The client has come up with the presenting complaints that clearly states that he is having difficulty in social situations where he is encountering with an unexplained fear because he thinks that he is being critically observed and scrutinized by the people around him in any social situation. From the last 12years, this client has been facing this difficulty. Moreover, it has been observed from his history of presenting complaints that earlier also he had faced the difficulty of not being able to talk to a person in the presence of others followed by he was use to restrict himself from communication in the fear of being observed by others. In his following days, he not only had to resign from his post of being the prefect but also left his workplace due to his increasing discomforts and limitation in articulating words. As days passed he avoided family gatherings like get together, parties or weddings. Therefore, from the symptoms it is clear that the client is suffering from Social anxiety disorder. Now, if the perspective of psychodynamics is considered for this case then from that outlook social anxiety disorder is assumed part of a wider problem that has emerged during childhood. Researchers supporting the psychodynamic perspective consider social anxiety disorders to be a disorder of childhood onset (Andersson et al. 2012). Thus, from the psychodynamic perspectives social anxiety disorders are the outcome of the early experiences the client had or the attachment he has with his caregiver as well as other essential people in his life. There is no such reliable psychodynamic theory of social anxiety disorder however; many beliefs seem to exist underneath this perspective. Thus, according to the psychodynamic viewpoint it is seem that social anxiety disorder can be an outcome from the following reasons in an individual- It might be the case that the individual may have been in a situation of shame and humiliation evoked by autocratic parents There might be a constant conflict going on in the individual of what he needs to achieve as well as succeed and the inner fear of success There might also be a conflict in the individual where his need for independence and his fear of being rejected or abandoned by the parents Lastly, there might also be a narcissistic fear residing in the individual that he might not make a perfect impression in the eyes of others. Therefore, from the causes and the approach discussed it can be said that the treatment plan for the client should focus mainly on counseling along with which medications can be given to the client (Archer et al. 2012). Fears that is linked with the social anxiety disorder must be overcomes and for that the best therapy is cognitive behavior therapy which should involve the exposure therapy for treating this particular client with social anxiety disorder. Counseling is way much important than medicines to reduce anxiety because here the client can slowly exposed to fear evoking situations and the fear evoking situation gets linked to a response of indifference and relaxation (McLeod 2014). Treatment My role in this case is that of a psychotherapist and the clients role is to follow and get involved in the therapy process that can take weeks, month or years to be cured. However, as a psychotherapist my work will be to assist and treat my client Mr. Piyal who is experiencing discomforts in the areas of psychological and emotional sphere. Thus, as per my roles are concerned I need to help my client to understand their problems and help them make proper changes in his lives. Therefore, with the help of a therapist the client can cope up faster with the feelings and symptoms and modify their patterns of behavior that is contributing to his illness (Dryden and Mytton 2016). The role of the clients who is here for the treatment must possess the following characteristics like- He must be motivated enough to follow the therapist He must be flexible and adaptable with the changes he had to come up with Most importantly he must be honest to the therapist otherwise the treatment will have no positive outcome The client should be consistent with his appointments and should continue his sessions as scheduled by the therapist Must have proper verbal communicative skills so that he can tell his problems clearly Apart from the issues that are earlier stated in the above section, that are the important issues pointed out from the clients presenting complaints there are certain less necessary issues as well that may have affected my client like self-esteem. In this type of disorders individuals are very much low in their self-esteem and found to be depressed as well because of their fear of being with larger group of people which may increase and become unbearable to tackle it and thus, as a result they starts worrying too much about facing such situations again in near future. Apart from this, my clinical eyes suggest that life experiences or social factors also have contributed for my client (Yen et al. 2012). There are many other risk factors prevailing for social anxiety disorders which are as following- Genetics Nurture- might be that the parents were overprotecting Life experiences- might have faced any kind of bullying, rejection or humiliation compared to others or any kind of negative experience individual personality- inborn traits like withdrawn, restrained timid or shy in a new situation demanding ordeal- A negative experience for the very first time in any situation can evoke the stimuli for social anxiety disorder Therapeutic plan Aim of the techniques Timeframe Role of the client and evaluation Ethical considerations Counseling- the type of counseling process that seem to have been more frequently used in this treating a client of social anxiety disorder are- cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)- The aim behind particularly choosing this therapy is mainly because it will help the client to first identify his anxiety provoking situations and the anxieties itself that is making the client anxious (Hofmann et al. 2012). At the very beginning, the client can feel uncomfortable in describing his situations that create fear in him but with the following sessions, he will realize that it is an important part of his recovery (Leichsenring et al. 2013). However, there are several CBT therapies that can be used for treating individuals with social anxiety disorders but the selected ones for this particular client is Exposure and Social skill training therapies (Meuret et al. 2012). These two are selected mainly because in the first one the client will be eventually exposed to a feared situation until the fear diminishes. In addition, in the second one the client will be guided to develop those skills that are needed in social situations. Medication- The medicines that can be effective to this client is Benzodiazepines, which is effective in relieving anxiety because they act quickly, and Beta-blockers, which is very much effective in treating with the physical symptoms of anxiety (Bostwick, Casher and Yasugi 2012). For this client this medicine will help reduce this pounding of heart. These sessions will be holding twice a week for six months. The role of the client here remains that apart from being motivated as well as determined that he will be taking all the medicines properly at prescribed time. Moreover, he should be honest while narrating his experiences as well as when doing certain homework as referred by the therapists. He must also be flexible and adaptable in welcoming the changes with an open arm that are coming to his life due to the therapies and medications. Most importantly, the client must be continuing the last scheduled session of counseling so that he can be cured totally. However, during these sessions the client will be given certain homework that by the therapist that they should sincerely perform in the absence of the therapist and report honestly in the next session to his therapist. For exposure theory, the client can be said to go out and eat in public. At the beginning, the therapist himself might accompany him but then he has to go alone and finish his meal. Then for social skill training, the client might have to do rehearsals at home as well as role-playing even in the absence of the therapist to continue his practice to become more comfortable and feel prepared to face any feared social situation. The very first ethical consideration is being trustworthy to the client. This will make the client have the confidence that the therapist will guide them to the right tract and most importantly with confidentiality. As a therapist, he must always show respect to the client. Through this, the client will develop the ability to be self-directing in the therapy as well as in other aspect of his life. From the therapists side the client should get fair and unbiased treatment and the assurance of adequate services needed for him to be cured. This is how the therapist respects the human rights and dignity (Pope and Vasquez 2016). Evaluation and reflection The approaches that are outlined above in the treatment plan are mainly counseling which comprises of the cognitive behavioral therapy along with medication. The strength and weakness of both are discussed below- Strengths of CBT in treating social anxiety CBT is very much instructive in nature thereby the clients learn skills of rational self-counseling. The average number of CBT sessions is very few as compared to other therapies. CBT mainly focuses on how to make the client overcome his anxieties rather than only making him feel better for a shorter time. This therapy gives long-term results to the client because it corrects the cause of the issue. CBT therapies are mainly well structured because it minimize the possibility for which the sessions will not turn into a chat period which will not help much in accomplishing the therapy. Weaknesses of CBT Clients commitment is most important in CBT because a therapist can only guide him but the rest have to be carried out by the client himself. A much of initial time is wasted because the client suffering from Anxiety disorder might feel uncomfortable in confronting their emotions and anxieties. Few critics have stated that because CBT is only focused about the present and specific problems in a client therefore it fail to define the possible mental health conditions that are underlying causes for instance an unhappy childhood. Strength and weaknesses of medication in treating social anxiety disorder There are various types of medications through with social anxiety can be treated from which for this particular client of this report the medicines chosen are the traditional anti-anxiety drug called Benzodiazepineswhich is mainly prescribed for being in a short term use and Beta blockers. Benzodiazepines if taken regularly guides to physical dependence as well as increases the persons tolerance, therefore it makes the person opt for larger doses to get relief. The strength point is that this medicine works quickly and is very impactful when taken during panic attacks or in any immense anxiety episode. It helps the person to slow down both physically and mentally by relaxing the nervous system. Whereas, the common side effects of this medication on people can be blurred vision, headache, stomach upset, confusion, issue related to memory, drowsiness, slurred speech, improper coordination, problem in concentrating and dizziness (DellOsso and Lader 2013). On the other hand, Beta-blocke rs help the person to limit the effects of norepinephrine which is a kind of stress hormone in is a part of the flight or fight response in a person, which in turn control the physical symptoms in anxiety like for this client this medication, is prescribed for pounding heat rate. It is not much effective for decreasing the emotional symptoms of anxiety disorders like worry which the biggest drawback. This medicine is most trustworthy for people with Phobias especially social phobia and performance anxiety. The common side effects of this medication are sleepiness, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and headache (Steg et al. 2012). Conclusion To conclude this report, it can be said that that the client named Mr.Piyal who is of the age of 30years has been presented with the complaints of suffering from an unexplained fear in social situations which made him feel that others are observing and is critically judging him for the last 12years. Due to this his history of illness suggests that he left his job and even avoided family get together, parties and even weddings. Based on his presenting complaints, history of illness along with his mental status examinations it has been found that the client is suffering from Social anxiety disorder. Thus, considering this a treatment plan has been made which stated that counseling and medication could be of great help to this particular client. In the counseling, process the therapy chosen for him is the cognitive behavioral therapy along with medications Benzodiazepines and Beta-blockers. CBT has been chosen because it is a well-structured therapy that focuses on the long-term cure of the client and followed by the medications, which apart from their side effects will help the client to get over his panic or anxious episodes and to help him to get over his physical issues. References American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Pub. Andersson, G., Paxling, B., Roch-Norlund, P., stman, G., Norgren, A., Almlv, J., Georn, L., Breitholtz, E., Dahlin, M., Cuijpers, P. and Carlbring, P., 2012. Internet-based psychodynamic versus cognitive behavioral guided self-help for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 81(6), pp.344-355. Archer, J., Bower, P., Gilbody, S., Lovell, K., Richards, D., Gask, L., Dickens, C. and Coventry, P., 2012. Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10. Bostwick, J.R., Casher, M.I. and Yasugi, S., 2012. Benzodiazepines: A Versatile Clinical Tool; Evidence Supports Their Use for Alcohol Withdrawal, Insomnia, Anxiety Disorders, and Other Conditions. Current Psychiatry, 11(4), p.54. DellOsso, B. and Lader, M., 2013. Do benzodiazepines still deserve a major role in the treatment of psychiatric disorders? A critical reappraisal. European Psychiatry, 28(1), pp.7-20. Dryden, W. and Mytton, J., 2016. Four approaches to counselling and psychotherapy. Routledge. Hofmann, S.G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I.J., Sawyer, A.T. and Fang, A., 2012. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy and research, 36(5), pp.427-440. Iverach, L. and Rapee, R.M., 2014. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Current status and future directions. Journal of fluency disorders, 40, pp.69-82. Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Beutel, M.E., Herpertz, S., Hiller, W., Hoyer, J., Huesing, J., Joraschky, P., Nolting, B., Poehlmann, K. and Ritter, V., 2013. Psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(7), pp.759-767. McLeod, J., 2014. Doing research in counselling and psychotherapy. Sage. Meuret, A.E., Wolitzky-Taylor, K.B., Twohig, M.P. and Craske, M.G., 2012. Coping skills and exposure therapy in panic disorder and agoraphobia: latest advances and future directions. Behavior therapy, 43(2), pp.271-284. Offidani, E., Guidi, J., Tomba, E. and Fava, G.A., 2013. Efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines versus antidepressants in anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 82(6), pp.355-362. Pope, K.S. and Vasquez, M.J., 2016. Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: A practical guide. John Wiley Sons. Steg, P.G., Ferrari, R., Ford, I., Greenlaw, N., Tardif, J.C., Tendera, M., Abergel, H., Fox, K.M. and CLARIFY Investigators, 2012. Heart rate and use of beta-blockers in stable outpatients with coronary artery disease. PloS one, 7(5), p.e36284. Yen, J.Y., Yen, C.F., Chen, C.S., Wang, P.W., Chang, Y.H. and Ko, C.H., 2012. Social anxiety in online and real-life interaction and their associated factors. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(1), pp.7-12.

Friday, April 3, 2020

Zoroaster Essay Example For Students

Zoroaster Essay Two of the three major monotheistic religions today are Judaism and Christianity. Upon taking a closer look at these western religions one cant help but notice a common thread running through all three. The ideas of one omniscient God (hence monotheism) and final judgment, resulting in spending an eternity in heaven or hell, are ever present. How do these largely practiced belief systems have so much in common? Who is responsible for creating the basic ideology of millions of believers today? The answer to these questions may lie in a man who lived nearly twenty-six hundred to possibly three and a half thousand years ago. Zoroastrians are the followers of the Achaemenian prophet or priest Zarathustra (or Zoroaster as the Greeks called him). (For clarification, I will use present day Iran in place of the Achaemenian Empire). Due to invasions of Iran and the destruction of their libraries, there are no sources to pinpoint the time frame of Zoroasters life. According to documents that s urvived the eradications, Zoroaster flourished 258 before Alexander Alexander the Great sacked the Iranian capitol in 330 BC, dating the prophets birth circa 628 BC, while some scholars estimate his life around 1400 BC. Where Zoroaster was born and lived is almost as uncertain as when he lived. Arab scripts state that Zaratusht arose from Ragh which researchers have concluded as Rhages, or present day Tehran Iran. The area in which he lived had an economy based on animal husbandry. Nomads who frequently raided those people were viewed by Zoroaster as of order and called them followers of the lie. So begins the basis of Zoroasters theology. We will write a custom essay on Zoroaster specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now To understand the overwhelming effect Zoroastrianism had on the people of the ancient Middle East, one must take a look at their belief system. Iran, as well as the entire Middle East, was a land where many pagan gods and goddesses were being born. During the time of Zoroaster, Mithra was one prominent religion practiced by the Iranians. Those who were followers of Mithra (as well as other religions) would sacrifice animals to pay homage to their gods. It wasnt uncommon for worshippers to consume narcotics and intoxicating beverages called Haoma (Zaehner 38). This is a one reason why Zoroaster revolted against Mithra and other Iranian religions before him. Zoroaster had received a vision from Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord, who appointed him to teach the truth. Initially Zoroaster did not try to overthrow current religions, yet placed Ahura Mazda as the Head God. Through his attempts to slowly reform ancient Iranian religion, Zoroaster was opposed in his monotheistic teachings and princi ples by religious authorities in the area that he preached. His enemies were the established civil and religious heads who wanted no part in the undoing of the ancient national religions, which had strong ties in the existing social and economic structures. Zoroaster testifies: Where and which part of land shall I go succeed? They keep me away from the family and the tribe. The community that I wish to join does not gratify me, nor do the deceitful tyrants of the land. How shall I gratify you, O Ahura Mazda? (Clark 3) It can be deduced that he was persecuted by religious and civil leaders and in turn escaped his homeland. Researchers indicate that Zoroaster appealed to one of the great leaders of his time called King Vishtaspa (the great grandson of Xerxes of Greece) (Princeton 83). The king along with a few others, (who included some family), became followers and began spreading the word of Zoroastrianism. The basis of Zoroasters teachings seems to revolve around the idea that all events in the world are based on cause and effect. He has based his teachings on three principles: good reflection, good word and good behavior. Zoroaster believed that all the motives of human beings are based on action and reaction. Therefore, if human beings act favorably, they will in turn receive favorable actions and vice versa. Zoroasters god was not a god who was neither a bribe taker nor a dealer. Ahura Mazda, as told by Zoroaster, did not need to be flattered by his creatures in ritualistic sacrifices (Zaehner 85); neither did he need to be bought with bribes of expensive offerings. (Wadia 53-56) The god of Zoroaster is a god of justice, kindness and truthfulness. Ahura Mazda, in turn, guides his people to practice the same principles, because no man is more worthy than the other. That is why Zoroaster has based his theology on good reflection, good word and good deed. Contrary to some religions pra cticed at that time, Zoroastrians are not predetermined in their fate to either eternal happiness or everlasting damnation.According to the Avesta (Zoroasterian scripture) everybody has the liberty to choose the right or wrong. This idea of free will may have taken root in the home community of Zoroaster as described in the Gathas (Zoroastrian hymns). The Gathas tells the story of a peaceful pastoral and cattle breeding society (presumably Zoroasters), which was constantly raided by fierce nomadic tribes. The latter Zoroaster constantly refers to as dregvants (the followers of the Lie) where as his own people are the ashavants (the followers of Truth). (Zaehner 34) Zoroastrianism proposes an ethical dualism, implying a radical choice made between good and evil, exemplified by these two spirits (dreg and asha) (Clark 9) Yet not only does Zoroaster present an ethical dualism, but also a religious one as well. The monotheistic basis of Zoroasters teaching appears to be dualistic. Ahura Mazda appears to have an opposing (evil) force. Contrary, Zoroaster taught that in the beginning there was a meeting of two spirits, who were free to choose life or not life. This original choice gave birth to a good (Spenta Mainyu) and an evil (Angra Mainyu) principle. Monotheism, however, prevails over ethical and religious dualism because Ahura Mazda is actually comprised of both spirits, who were divided into the two opposed principles through their own choice and decision pitted in an eternal struggle. (Clark 6-10)At the beginning of time, the world was divided into the dominion of the good and of the evil. Between these, each man is bound to decide. From mans freedom of decision he alone is responsible for his fate. Through his good deeds, the righteous person earns an everlasting reward. He who opts for evil is condemned by Ahura Mazda and must expect to descend to the Christian concept of hell. Ahura Mazda is said to eventually vanquish the spirit of evil. This is done in s imilar fashion as the Christian religion, were there is a final internal confrontation where the good spirit, Spent a Mainyu, destroys the evil spirit. Zoroasters monotheistic solution had replaced the idea of dualism. (Zaehner 54-57)Not many stories have been recorded about teachings that Zoroaster supplied to his followers. Zoroastrianism had eventually grown popular among the Iranian people but had still received opposition from other religious heads. Several attempts were made by opposing religions to uproot the new theology. Some religious leaders tried to discredit the Zoroastrians by accusing them of being fire worshippers. Zoroaster didnt believe in anthropomorphism, so he chose to symbolize his god with fire. Zoroaster considered light and fire to be the cleanest phenomona in the earth therefore he chose them to be the symbol of Ahur Mazda. Unfortunately, some people out of wickedness or mere misunderstanding regarded Zoroastrianism as a fire-worshipping religion. The accus ations not only damaged the theological basis, but also put holes in followers faith. Even today the followers of Zoroaster are ridiculed as fire worshipers. (Waida 47, Clark 93)Zoroasters death appears to be as sketchy as his birth. Currently there are several possible accounts of the prophets death. Two are relatively similar in effect, but vary in minuet detail. One account states that he was murdered by a rival priest while attending to his regular rituals. The other recorded possibility is that Zoroaster was slain along with other priests by the rival priests (Kavis) during a raid on a Zoroastrian sanctuary. Not all texts make a claim for a violent death. One researcher reports that Zoroasters departureto the best existence, when seventy-seven years had elapsed onwards from his birth. (Clark 24) Bartering for gaining power through the name of God and sacrificing of animals, where both large sources of income for other religious leaders. Zarathustras three principles of good ref lection, good words, and good deed; lead to eternal life. Therefore, there was no need for religious leaders to assume the role of mediator between God and people like other religions. Zarathustra beliefs even deprived the clergies from temples that they had built. As these priests were deprived of their followers and money they developed animosity toward Zoroasterianism. After Zoroasters death, priests of other religions incorperated Ahur Mazda to their own religions in hopes of winning Zoroasters people and money.In this manner the religion of Mithra became so popular in Iran that even King Xerxes (of Greece) was worshiping Mithra next to Ahur Mazda. A century later, improper behavior on the part of Alexander of Macedonia resulted in ordering his army to set fire to libraries of Iran. The destruction of didactic literature is why history in that area is so ambiguous. Due to continued persecution and undo hardships, Zoroastrians were scattered throughout the Middle East. Zoroasters philosophy was transferred person to person and has caused many alterations that may not be inline with true Zoroastrianism. .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 , .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .postImageUrl , .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 , .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:hover , .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:visited , .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:active { border:0!important; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:active , .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152 .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u0bc198e451358fc184e140cd80714152:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Is ethical theory applicable to practice EssayWhat direct effects Zoroastrianism had on later Judaeo-Christian religions cannot be said for certain. Zoroasters doctrine of rewards and punishments, of an eternal bliss and an eternity of woe allotted to good and evil men in another life beyond the grave is so strikingly similar to (Judeo-Christian) teaching that we cannot fail to ask whether here at least there is not a direct influence at work. For the similarities are so great and the historical context so neatly apposite that it would be carrying skepticism altogether too far to refuse to draw the obvious conclusion. (Zaehner 57) Since Zoroastrianism was developed somewhe re between 100 900 years before Judaism and Jews had direct interaction with Iranians, it can be concluded that Iranians influenced the Jews, especially in the ways of religion.It can be said then that Zoroastrianism was the basis for Christianity as well as Judaism, since Judaism held the founding principles for Christianity. Bibliography:

Sunday, March 8, 2020

buy custom Cancer of the Cervix essay

buy custom Cancer of the Cervix essay Introduction Cervical cancer is the cancerous infection that occurs as a result of abnormal growth of cells on the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that is connected to the upper portion of the birth canal. Cervical cancer is the second most common and fifth most deadly disease in women globally. In 2008 it was approximated that there were roughly 473,000 cases of cervical cancer (Blaustein Kurman, 2002). The annual deaths were at 253,500. This paper explores the pathological events that lead to infection of cervical cancer, its consequences, the related risk factors of the disease, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Pathological events leading to Cervical Cancer Pathological studies that have been conducted demonstrate that cervical cancer develops as a result of the abnormal growth in the cervical tissue. The main cause of the cancer is the human papilloma virus (HPV). This virus is transmitted from one person to the other through sexual contacts (Shah Rohan, 2004). The vulnerability is increased in women that have early sexual contacts and more than one sexual partner. These often lead to the development of cervical-related lesions that may later grow to become cancerous. The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) exists in various types. However, not all of the viruses cause cervical cancer. On the same note, one can have the HPV for several years without knowledge. However, results of the research conducted on cervical cancer indicate that 70% of cervical cancer globally is caused by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). This virus can stay in the body and cause cancerous infection several years later. This explains the recommendations of the medical practitioners that women should undertake Pap tests as frequently as possible so that any changes in the cervical cells can be detected and treated before they develop to be cancerous (Blaustein Kurman, 2002). Pap smear remains to be the commonest screening test for cervical cancer. However, confirmation of the diagnosis of the cervical cancer needs a biopsy. This is done through the use of colposcopy (Singer Monaghan, 2000). If not detected and treated early enough, cervical cancer can spread out to the bordering organs like the kidney, the renal tract and the birth canal. The survival rate for women diagnosed with cervical cancer is almost 100% if the precancerous changes in the cervix are detected and treated early. However, the success of treatment of invasive type of cancer is largely dependent on the stage of detection. Thus, the stage at which cervical cancer is screened, detected and treated determines the success and survival of the patient (Shah Rohan, 2004). For the earliest stages of cancer of the cervix, that is 0, 1A, approximately 90% of women are able to prolong their lives by at least five years. The later stages of development of cervical cancer are relatively challenging to effectively deal with. At this stage, only 20% or fewer patients survive (Shah Rohan, 2004). This is the same case with the stage IV of a developed cancer of the cervix. Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer The most common risk factor for getting cervical cancer is sexual activity. The risk is based on the association of cervical cancer with the human papilloma virus (HPV). This virus is transmitted through sexual contact with a person that has contracted it. This is particularly linked to the squamous cell cervical cancers (Shah Rohan, 2004). Therefore women who have multiple sex partners are greatly exposed to the risk of contracting cervical cancer. This risk remains if the women are in sexual relationship with a man who has sexual contacts with other partners (Rosdahl Kowalski, 2008). The cancer of the cervix is common in women who have been celibate throughout their lives. Such women are exposed to the risk of an adenocarcinoma cancer of the endocervix. However, on a general note, all sexually active women are at risk of developing cancer of the cervix (Blaustein Kurman, 2002). The risk of development of the cervical cancer is compounded further by smoking and sexual promiscuity on the part of the woman or her male sexual partner. Lack of regular Pap smear screenings also exposes women to the risk of developing cervical cancer. Those who are commonly diagnosed with cervical cancer are women who have not had regular and consistent screening of cervical cancer through Pap smear test (Shah Rohan, 2004). The risk factor that cervical cancer puts patients to include spread of the disease to other body tissues, organs and cells. For example, as the disease develops, it is growing to affect the neighboring tissues and organs such as the rectum, the lymphatic system, the birth canal, kidneys and even the liver (Shah Rohan, 2004). This can be very fatal for the patient. Cervical cancer puts pregnant women at a great risk of spontaneous miscarriage especially if the cervix is manipulated or biopsied in the first trimester of the pregnancy. In some cases women diagnosed with cervical cancer can be rendered infecund. This happens when the treatment procedures require total pelvic removal. In such cases, the uterus, tubes, ovaries, bladder, colon and the vagina are all removed. Such surgical procedures would thus leave the woman permanently infertile. Of all the risks associated with cervical cancer the most dreaded one is the painful reality that eventually the patient has to succumb to dea th if the disease was not detected early enough and treated. Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer The progress that has been made in diagnosis of cervical cancer is by use of Pap smear. This should be a regular process that involves examination of the pelvis. Cells that are on the surface of the cervix are collected and examined on a slide. In order to diagnose cervical cancer, a biopsy is taken for analysis under a microscope. The biopsy is usually examined by specially trained physician who is experienced in the diagnosis of diseases through examination of body cells and tissues. Shah Rohan (2004) cited that cervical cancer is also diagnosed through colposcopy. This is an examination procedure that involves the use of a special microscope known as colposcope to examine the cervix (Shah Rohan, 2004). For this to be done, the entire cervix is stained with a dye that is not harmful so as to enhance visualization of abnormall cells with clarity. Another method for diagnosis of cervical cancer is the use of the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). This involves the use of an electrified wire that is looped to pick samples of tissue from the cervix. This is often done by a gynecologist. Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer The signs and symptoms of cervical cancer are evident only in the advanced stages of the disease. For women in their post-menopause ages, the clear sign of the disease is the abnormal bleeding (Issah, 2010). In the advanced stages cervical cancer causes abnormal vaginal discharge. Most patients diagnosed with cervical cancer also complain of pelvic pain that is persistent and not related to other normal conditions of menstruation. Issah (2010) writes that pain can range from a dull ache to sharp pains that can be lasting for several hours. In some cases women with cervical cancer may experience abnormal pain during vaginal coitus. Besides, patients diagnosed with the disease often complain of pain during urinal discharge. This is a symptom for advanced cervical cancer. Further, increased frequency of urination and urinary infection can be an indication of a developing cancer. Treatment of Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer may be treated by use of radiation especially in stages where surgery cannot be done. Biopsy and LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure), though diagnostic procedures, can sometimes be used as treatment procedures as well (Rosdahl Kowalski, 2008). These procedures involve examination of a section of the cervical tissue for detection of the disease. This will then inform the practitioner whether the disease needs further examination or the best possible treatment approach that can be adopted. Treatment of cervical cancer can also be done through the use of cryocautery. This treatment procedure uses a steel instrument that is cooled to subzero temperature. This is done through immersion of the instrument in liquid nitrogen (Shalini, Chitrathara Amita, 2012). The intra-cooled instrument is thereafter applied to the cervical surface to freeze cells to the death. Once cells are dead they are sloughed-off and replaced by new cells of cervix. Infected tissues can al so be treated through laser ablation. This involves application of a laser beam to the specific areas of the tissues or its entire surface. This laser destroys the affected cells and leaves healthy cells in their place (Singer Monaghan, 2000; Shalini et al, 2012). However, success of cryocautery or laser ablation depends on followed follow-up examination such as the application of Pap smear. Conclusion The pathology, risk factors, prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer is a medical field that continues to attract scholarly research. However, the progress that has been made in this field indicates that cervical cancer still remains the greatest threat to women who are sexually active. The easiest and commonest screening procedure is the Pap smear. Although much effort has been made to contain the disease, the greatest level of success has been witnessed in protection and not treatment. Much more investigation is thus warranted. Buy custom Cancer of the Cervix essay

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The New Woman in Kate Chopin's the Awakening Essay

The New Woman in Kate Chopin's the Awakening - Essay Example This means that for almost half a century before Kate Chopin published The Awakening, society had been engaged in a struggle over equal rights issues and social ideologies. As an outcome of this struggle, female part of the society had, to some extent, already undergone mobilization and emancipation from their socioeconomic captivity. The following research is to review and analyze on the example of Kate Chopin's novel about the "sexual awakening" and an unconventional behavior of a woman how for the first time in the USA, women began to bring the formerly private issues of family and home into the public domain and this way caused significant social changes. As many biographers admit today, writing a story of another person's life story is writing one's own as well. If we try to find out why Kate Chopin wrote her novel and how the society accepted it, we will often find the answers in the French women the voices of whom dominated Chopin's formative years. Many historians note that women during the post-Civil War period regularly took part in the marketplace, earned their own sources of support, broke with derogatory forms of financial dependency on men. Culley M. asserts that women "at all levels of society were active in attempts to better their lot, and the "New Woman", the late nineteenth-century equivalent of the "liberated woman", was much on the public mind" (Culley 117). In middle 1899, nearly 50 years after the women's movement officially had started, the social and cultural background seemed favorable for the literary introduction of Edna Pontellier, Kate Chopin's fictional character. The plot of the novel can be depicted in short as follows. The main character, Edna Pontellier is 28 years old, married to a 40-year-old New Orleans businessman who earn living for her and their two sons. She is satisfied but not really happy. During one summer at Grand Isle, a charming Creole resort, she has several awakenings. A real romance occurs between Edna and the resort owner's young son, Robert Lebrun, after he teaches her swimming and she gets the feeling of power and sensuality. Meanwhile, Edna makes friends with Madame Adle Ratignolle, a woman who is fully contented in her traditional woman role, but whose affectionate ways and insights draw Edna to speculate about herself and learn striking things. Being a motherless child and an intellectual Edna now realizes that she has married Lonce Pontellier only in order to annoy her family, and to close the door on unreal obsessions and dreams. She realized that she became a mother without particularly wish to be one, and did not raise that question until that moment. During Edna's summer of awakenings she starts, with the help of her female friends, recovering her voice. The peculiar, slightly sinister pianist Mademoiselle Reisz develops Edna's deep appreciation for music and inspires her flirtation with Robert, who, suddenly leaves for Mexico. After coming back home Edna begins to ignore her wifely obligations. Listening to her own inner voice, Edna starts expressing opinions, and while she is ecstatically alone, organizes a luxurious dinner party before moving herself to a little house. Later on Edna has